Title: The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) position stand. The female athlete triad.
Authors: Aurelia Nattiv, M.D., FACSM (Chair); Anne B.Loucks, Ph.D., FACSM; Melinda M. Manore, Ph.D., R.D., FACSM; Charlotte F. Sanborn, Ph.D., FACSM; Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Ph.D.; and Michelle P. Warren, M.D.
Summary: In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) updated their original position stand on the female athlete triad, first published in 1997. The revised publication refers to the female athlete triad as defined by the interrelationships among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density, which may have clinical manifestations including eating disorders, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis.
PDF Document: ACSM Position Stand
Title: Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance
Author: D. Travis Thomas, PhD, RDN, CSSD; Kelly Anne Erdman, MSc, RD, CSSD; Louise M. Murke, OAM, PhD, APD, FACSM
Summary: It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport
Title: Managing the Female Athlete Triad
Author: Developed by Roberta Sherman, Ph.D., FAED, and Ron Thompson, Ph.D., FAED, Co-chairs of the Athlete Special Interest Group of the Academy of Eating Disorders, in conjunction with the NCAA.
Summary: This manual resulted from a recent survey of almost 2,900 NCAA coaches of female athletes that looked at how disordered eating and the Female Athlete Triad are identified and managed. Coaches were surveyed because of their importance to, and their influence with, their studentathletes, and the fact that coaches are in an excellent position to play a significant role in identifying and managing affected athletes. On the survey, coaches were also asked what training or information they needed in this regard.
Based on the findings of that survey, this manual was proposed. The purpose of this manual is to provide coaches with strategies to identify, manage and prevent the Female Athlete Triad, which involves the interrelated problems of disordered eating (DE), amenorrhea (loss of menses) and osteoporosis (loss of bone mineral density). The prevalence of the Triad is unknown, but is believed to be high among female athletes due to the prevalence of eating disorders in young women, the high rate of amenorrhea often found in athletes, and the pressures many athletes feel to be thin or lean in order to perform better athletically or conform to an appearance standard associated with their sport. An athlete with signs or symptoms of any component of the Triad should be evaluated regarding the other two.
PDF Document: NCAA Managing the Female Athlete Triad
Title: International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission Position Stand on the Female Athlete Triad
Author: IOC Medical Commission Working Group Women in Sport; Chair: Patricia Sangenis, MD
Summary: The primary goal of the IOC Medical Commission in relation to the Female Athlete Triad is described in this position stand. The IOC has recognized that the strive for excellence in the female athlete must be met with an overall concern for their health and performance of their sport. The focus is placed specifically on the pressures, standards, and messages underlying their training and competition. These issues may encourage the desire to meet unrealistic weight or body fat levels by themselves, coaches, team physicians, other health care providers, International Federations, and sports governing bodies.
PDF Document: IOC Medical Commission Position Stand
Title: National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statement: Preventing, Detecting, and Managing Disordered Eating in Athletes
Authors: Christine M. Bonci, MS, ATC; Leslie J. Bonci, MPH, RD, LDN, CSSD; Lorita R. Granger, ATC; Craig L. Johnson, PhD; Robert M. Malina, PhD, FACSM; Leslie W. Milne, MD; Randa R. Ryan, PhD; Erin M. Vanderbunt, MS, ATC
Summary: In 2008, the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA) published their position statement in the Journal of Athletic Training, regarding the recommended prevention, detection, and effective management of disordered eating in female athletes.